Red Race

4 Ears of corn
Four Ears of Natural Corn Representing the Four Races

Ministry of the Children
Power of the Gift

Red represents the road which we travel to the Spirit World.  It represents the Sacred Road we travel during our lifetime.  It represents the struggle of a people ruled by their Heart and Feelings about Self and Others.

"At the beginning of this cycle of time, long ago, the Great Spirit came down and He made an appearance and He gathered the peoples of this earth together and He said to the human beings, 'I'm going to send you to four directions and over time I'm going to change you to four colors, but I'm going to give you some teachings and you will call these the Original Teachings and when you come back together with each other you will share these so that you can live and have peace on earth, and a great civilization will come about.' And he said 'During the cycle of time I'm going to give each of you two stone tablets. When I give you those stone tablets, don't cast those upon the ground. If any of the brothers and sisters of the four directions and the four colors cast their tablets on the ground, not only, will human beings have a hard time, but almost the earth itself will die.' " -- Lee Brown, Baha'i- Cherokee, Baha'i Continental Indigenous Council, Fairbanks, Alaska, 1986

To the East, the Indian people, the red people, He gave the Guardianship of the Earth. We were to learn during this cycle of time the teachings of the Earth, the plants that grow from the Earth, the foods that you can eat, and the herbs that are healing so that when we came back together with the other brothers and sisters we could share this knowledge with them. Something good was to happen on the Earth.

And so he gave each of us a responsibility and we call that the Guardianship.

Return of Our Ancestors

White Buffalo Calf Woman

In the 14th century, White Buffalo Calf Woman said to the Red People of the American plains:

"Heal my Sacred Body, the Land you live on. Recreate the Sacred Hoop of the hoop of the People, this time large enough to encompass the Peoples of the World and hold them in Unity! There will come a day when the White People will come from the North and the Black People will come from the South and the Yellow People will come from the West.  All will join with the Red Race on these hunting grounds of Turtle Island [North America].”  -- Unknown

2,000 years ago a beautiful young woman appeared to the Lakota Sioux. She gave the people a sacred pipe and taught them how to use it to pray. Before she left them, she said she would return She was known as White Buffalo Calf Woman.

In 1875, Tatanka Yotanka (Sitting Bull), was participating in the annual Sun Dance powwow at Standing Rock, Dakota Territory. All at once, he collapsed into a trance. In his vision, he found himself 400 miles to the west, in the hilly coulee country of eastern Montana.

Sitting Bull (1837—1890), Chief, Sioux Indian Tribe

There, Sitting Bull met White Buffalo Calf Woman, guardian spirit of the Lakota People. She told him that in one year's time a big battle will be fought there. The Lakotas will be victorious, she said, but victory will bring hardship. However, White Buffalo Calf Woman told Sitting Bull that the Lakota people will experience a great revival in a few generations. One year later, on the 25th June, 1876, the Battle of the Little Big Horn took place.

In 1998, Floyd Hand, 19th holder of White Buffalo Calf Woman's sacred medicine pipe, had a vivid dream of a beautiful woman in a rainbow-colored dress who said she would bring a message of unity and peace to mankind.

A nation is coming
The whole world is coming
Over the whole earth they are coming
A Nation is coming
The Eagle has brought the message to the tribe
Have you forgotten me?
I am the Earth Mother
Once again I come to offer you the sacred pipe
The symbol of Wholeness and Unity
The joining of Man and Woman
Of Heaven and Earth
Truth and Love
Take it!  Use It!  Become It!
Heal my Sacred Body, the Land you live on
Recreate the Sacred Hoop of the People
Large enough to encompass the Peoples of the World
And hold them in Unity!

White Buffalo Calf Woman

Iroquois Great Peace

Deganawidah: the Two Serpents
by Scott Peterson

The following is attributed to Deganawidah via oral history

You will face a time of great suffering.  You will distrust your leaders and the principles of peace and of the Great Peace. A great white serpent will come upon you and will intermingle with you for a time and will be accepted by the People who will treat the serpent as a friend.  This serpent will become so powerful that it will attempt to destroy the People and the serpent will seem to choke the lifeblood out of you.  At this point, all hope will seem to be lost and when things look their darkest a red serpent will come from the north and approach the white serpent which will be terrified and upon seeing the red serpent he will release you and you will fall to the ground like a helpless child while the white serpent will turn all his attention to the red serpent.   The white serpent will be stunned and take part of the red serpent and accept him.  Then shall they argue and fight.  Then shall the People revive and crawl toward the hilly country where you shall assemble the people together and they shall renew their faith and the principles of the Great Peace.  Then will exist among you a great love and forgiveness for your brother and in this gathering will come streams from all over—not only for you, the Haudenosaunee, but for all the People and you will gather together in the hilly country and renew your friendship. I say to you that you must remain neutral in this fight between the white serpent and the red serpent.

As you watch this struggle between the two serpents, a message will come to you, which will make you humble.  When you become humble, you will be waiting for a leader, a youth from among the People who has not yet attained manhood, who will be a choice seer.  No one will know who he is or where he comes from, but he will be given great power and will be heard by many people.  He will give you the guidance and hope to refrain from going back to your land and he will be the accepted leader.

You shall gather together in the hilly country under the branches of an elm tree and burn tobacco and call upon me by name.    You shall call upon the name Deganawida in your darkest hour and I will return.  The choice seer shall speak to the People that number as the blades of grass and will be heard by all at the same time.  As you are gathered watching the struggle of the serpents, you will notice from the south a black serpent approaching from the sea dripping with salt water.  He will rest for a time and collect his breath while looking north to the land where the white and red serpents are fighting.  They will begin slowly to fight, but will increase in intensity until the violence of their struggle shall cause the mountains to crack and the rivers will boil and the fish will turn up on their bellies.   There will be no leaves on the trees in the area where they struggle.  There will be no grass on the ground and strange bugs will crawl from the ground and attack the white and red serpents, which will become sickened when a great heat causes the stench of death to overcome them.

As the boy seer watches this fight, the red serpent reaches around the back of the white serpent and pulls from him a hair which is carried to the south by a great wind into the waiting hands of the black serpent.  As the black serpent studies the hair, it changes into a woman, a white woman who tells him things that he knows to be true but he wants to hear them again. When she finishes talking, he takes her and places her gently on a rock with great love and respect. Becoming exceedingly angry at what she has told him, he proceeds in haste directly to the north and enters the baffle between the white and red serpents with such speed and anger that he defeats the two serpents that are already battle-weary. Standing on the chest of the white serpent, the black serpent begins to boast like a conqueror and looks about for another serpent to conquer.  Looking to the land of the hilly country, he sees the People standing with arms folded and knows that this is not who he should fight. Turning eastward, he will be momentarily blinded by a great light many times brighter than the sun.  The light will come from east to west across the water and the black serpent will become terrified and will go directly into the sea swimming to the south and shall never again be seen by the People.

The white serpent will revive and make a feeble attempt to go toward that light.  A portion of the white serpent will refuse to remain but will go to the land of the hilly country to join the People with a great love like that of a lost brother.  The remnant of the white serpent will go into the sea and disappear from sight for a time.  Reappearing suddenly, the white serpent will swim slowly toward the light and will never again be a trouble to the People.  The red serpent will revive and shiver with great fear when he sees the light.  He will crawl to the north leaving a bloody, shaky trail northward never again to be seen by the People.  I, Deganawida, shall be that light and when I return to my people, you shall be a greater nation than ever before.

Iroquois Longhouse
Iroquois Longhouse Dancer

The Six Nations Confederacy

Haudenosaunee (pronounced Ho-deh-no-shaw-nee) is a confederation of tribes in the Northeastern United States and Canada. The name by which the world knows them is Iroquois, a French insult that means 'venomous snakes'.  Originating as a confederacy of five tribes, it now contains six members. The original five members are Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Mohawk. The sixth member is Tuscarora. Relatives of the Cherokee of the Southeastern United States, the Haudenosaunee are credited with creating what historians call the World's First Constitutional Democracy. 

According to Haudenosaunee, they were a people engaged in perpetual internecine warfare and that the practice of ritual cannibalism in which a warrior ate the heart of a conquered enemy was commonly practiced. Amid these circumstances, Great Spirit found it necessary to send a man to unite the tribes, bring peace and stop barbaric practices.

This man, whom Haudenosaunee called Deganawida (pronounced Deh-gah-nah-wee-dah) which means Peacemaker,     They say that Peacemaker grew up with a speech impediment and no interest in practicing war in the midst of a people that valued oratory and battle skills. Finding himself unwelcome among his own people, he ventured south into the land of the Haudenosaunee where he met a cannibal named Hiawatha who was charismatic and skilled in oratory.  Contact with Deganawida caused Hiawatha to forsake his former lifestyle and embrace the Plan of Peace, which Deganawida espoused. With Hiawatha as his spokesman, Deganawida presented his plan to the five tribes of the Haudenosaunee.

Deganawidah Iroquois Messenger of Peace

"Be strong of mind, O chiefs: Carry no anger and hold no grudges. Think not forever of yourselves, O chiefs, nor of your own generation. Think of continuing generations of our families, think of our grandchildren and of those yet unborn, whose faces are coming from beneath the ground".  -- Deganawidah, via oral history

Over a five year period, they managed to bring first the Mohawk, and then 'the people of the stone' the Oneida, the Cayuga, the Seneca, and 'the firekeepers' the Onondaga into the Great Longhouse.  Deganawida introduced himself to the people by saying that he

".  .  .had been sent by the Master of Life from whom we are all descended to establish the Great Peace a union of all the nations."  -- Soaring Hawk

It was by 'a great miracle of healing' that he brought in the Onondaga and established the Great Commonwealth.  He divided the Nations into Clans led by 'revered older women,' established councils of men and titles, decreed that members were to be elected and could be impeached by the Clan Mother, the matron of the clan. 

He not only created what historians call the world's first Federal Democratic Constitutional government, but also the first in which women voted. He also made provision for the adoption of other nations as members of the Great Commonwealth and of individual persons by families.

To cement the union and to provide a visual reminder to the people of what they had agreed to, Deganawida planted a tree in the land of the Onondaga at the center of the Commonwealth, which he called 'The Tree of the Great Long Leaves' and 'The Tree of the Great Peace.'  He is also credited with showing them how to make wampum belts to record both history and the minutes of Council meetings.  Before leaving the people, Deganawida gave them a prophecy of "Troubles That Will Come" when he will return from the east as a light that is many times brighter than the sun and will blind the serpent, which shall flee away and be seen no more.

The Haudenosaunee exist today on reservations in Canada, New York, Wisconsin and Oklahoma. Although not the power they formerly were, they still issue their own passports. The tribes also are divided over reservation gambling. But there are still those among them who well remember the story of Deganawida, sent from the Master of Life and Creator of the World.  They watch for the return of 'The Peacemaker'.   .   .

"Before our white brothers arrived to make us civilized men, we didn't have any kind of prison. Because of this, we had no delinquents. Without a prison, there can be no delinquents. We had no locks nor keys and therefore among us there were no thieves. When someone was so poor that he couldn't afford a horse, a tent or a blanket, he would, in that case, receive it all as a gift. We were too uncivilized to give great importance to private property. We didn't know any kind of money and consequently, the value of a human being was not determined by his wealth. We had no written laws laid down, no lawyers, no politicians, therefore we were not able to cheat and swindle one another. We were really in bad shape before the white men arrived and I don't know how to explain how we were able to manage without these fundamental things that (so they tell us) are so necessary for a civilized society." -- John (Fire) Lame Deer, Sioux Lakota, 1903-1976

The Great Peace and the founding of America

Centuries before Columbus arrived in the New World, democracy as practiced by the Native American Iroquois League was alive and well, and waiting for the founding fathers to discover it. The Great Peace, which had existed centuries before the arrival of Europeans, survived until the American Revolution, when the tribes split over joining the British or Americans.

Benjamin Franklin derived his Plan of Union for the Colonies, which Thomas Jefferson later revised, in large part from the Haudenosaunee constitution. Nowhere did they ever give credit to the Haudenosaunee and they left out two important features, the role of women in government and the impeachment of elected officials, both of which were added later as constitutional amendments.

Native American teachings, particularly as exposed by Hiawatha, founder of the great Iroquois League of Peace, had a tremendous influence on Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.

"I am of the opinion that securing the friendship of the Indians is of the greatest consequence for these colonies.  The colonists should accept the Iroquois advice to form a union in common defense under a common, federal government.
Brothers, our forefathers rejoiced to hear Canassatego [of the Iroquois] speak [His words] sunk deep into our hearts. The advice was good. It was kind. They said to one another: 'The Six Nations are a wise people, let us hearken to them, and take their counsel; and teach our children to follow it,' Our old men have done so. They have frequently taken a single arrow and said, Children, see how easily it is broken. Then they have taken and tied twelve arrows together with a strong string or cord and our strongest men could not break them. See, said they, this is what the Six Nations mean. Divided, a single man may destroy you; United, you are a match for the whole world."  -- Benjamin Franklin
"[The Indians] have 'outdone the Romans'.  [They have] a social and political system so old that the immigrant Europeans knew nothing of its origins-a federal union of five (and later six) Indian nations that had put into practice concepts of popular participation and natural rights that the European savants had thus far only theorized. The Iroquois system, expressed through its constitution 'The Great Law of Peace,' rested on assumptions foreign to monarchies of Europe: it regarded leaders as servants of the people, rather than their masters, and made provision for their leaders' impeachment for errant behavior. The Iroquois' law and custom upheld freedom of expression in political and religious matters and it forbade the unauthorized entry of homes. It provided for political participation by women and relatively equitable distribution of wealth." -- Cadwallader Colden (Johansen, l982, xiv), contemporary of Benjamin Franklin

Wavoka and the Ghost Dance

At the end of the last century, the Paiute seer Wavoka became entangled in the last significant revolt of the Plains Indians against their American oppressors. A complex figure, he was revered by Indians while being denounced as an impostor and a lunatic by the local settlers throughout his entire life. He had a series of spiritual visions that led him to create a native religious revival dance called the Ghost Dance. Wavoka saw in his visions a peaceful ceremonial dance of all the races of the world, however the defeated tribes interpreted it as a war dance at the time! The real revival is about to begin!

Wavoka (1856-1932)

By 1890 food was always short. Disease killed both young and old on the reservation. The United States outlawed many native traditions. The Lakotas were lost between cultures. The Ghost Dance was a mix of Indian and Christian ceremony. It brought hope to many tribes. The Indians believed that if they danced, a messiah would come, the white man would go, their lives would become whole. The Lakotas also believed that they would be reunited with dead relatives and the buffalo would return. They danced and sang:

"The buffalo are coming. Give me back my bow."  -- Lakota Ghost Dance Lyrics

ghost dance
Dancing the Ghost Dance

"The first peace, which is the most important, is that which comes from within the souls of men when they realize their relationship, their oneness, with the universe and all its powers, and when they realize that at the center of the universe dwells Wakan-Tanka, and that this center is really everywhere, it is within each of us. This is the real peace, and the others are but reflections of this. The second peace is that which is made between two individuals, and the third is that which is made between two nations. But above all you should understand that there can never be peace between nations until there is first known that true peace which is within the souls of men."  -- Black Elk

Hopi People of Peace

For a deeper look at the indigenous heart of North America, please see Hopi - People of Peace


According to Hopi Dictionary: Hopìikwa Lavàytutuveni, the word koyaanisqatsi (Hopi pronunciation: koh-yah-nis-kah-tsee) is translated from the Hopi language as "life of moral corruption and turmoil" or "life out of balance".The prefix "koyaanis" means "corrupted" or "chaotic", and the word "qatsi" means "life" or "existence",which literally translates koyaanisqatsi as "chaotic life". It has also been defined as "crazy life", "life in turmoil", "life disintegrating" and "a state of life that calls for another way of living".

Koyaanisqatsi,  Produced by Francis Ford Cappola, Music by Phillip Glass


Martin Speaks at Prophecy Rock
Eldest Elder Grandfather Martin Gashweseoma, Prophecy Rock

Prophecy Rock Petroglyph, near Oraibi, Arizona, is an ancient depiction of the heart of Hopi prophecy.

prophecy rock
Prophecy Rock Petroglyph

You will notice the crosses on each side of the petroglyph.  Dr. George Merkl understood the 'Power of the Cross' within our own blood.  Martin Gashweseoma gives a traditional interpretation:

"The large human figure on the left is the Great Spirit. The bow in his left hand represents his instructions to the Hopi to lay down their weapons. The vertical line to the right of the Great Spirit is a time scale in thousands of years. The point at which the great Spirit touches the line is the time of his return.
The 'life path' established by the Great Spirit divides into the lower, narrow path of continuous Life in harmony with nature and the wide upper road of white man's scientific achievements. The bar between the paths, above the cross, is the coming of white men; the Cross is that of Christianity. The circle below the cross represents the continuous Path of Life.
The four small human figures on the upper road represent, on one level, the past three worlds and the present; on another level, the figures indicate that some of the Hopi will travel the white man's path, having been seduced by its glamour.
The two circles on the lower Path of Life are the "great shaking of the earth" (World Wars One and Two). The swastika in the sun and the Celtic cross represent the two helpers of Pahana, the True White Brother.
The short line that returns to the straight Path of Life is the last chance for people to turn back to nature before the upper road disintegrates and dissipates. The small circle above the Path of Life, after the last chance, is the Great Purification, after which corn will grow in abundance again when the Great Spirit returns. And the Path of Life continues forever...
The Hopi shield in the lower right corner symbolizes the Earth and the Four-Corners area where the Hopi have been reserved. The arms of the cross also represent the four directions in which they migrated according to the instructions of the Great Spirit.
The dots represent the four colors of Hopi corn, and the four racial colors of humanity."  -- Martin Gashweseoma

Santa Fe Prophetic Gathering

Dalai Lama and Grandfather David
His holiness Dalai Lama, Hopi Elders David Monongye and Thomas Banyacya

The above photo shows the Dalai Lama of Tibet greeting Hopi Spiritual Elders David Monongye, Thomas Banyacya and Dan Evehema in Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

"In the December before the Winter Solstice of 1990, Hopi Grandfather Martin from Hotevilla, AZ observed a snake coming out of his hole and a Cactus flower blooming, both in the dead of winter. These were two very distinct signs that his elders had told him to look for, as a part of the ancient Hopi Prophecy of the SUN Clan. Grandfather Martin was the keeper of the ancient Fire or Sun Clan stone-clay tablets. He knew what he was witnessing, and so he followed the sacred instructions. He was to take the set of tablets he held to the oldest settlement in the West, Santa Fe, NM.  Martin and five other Hopi Elders went to see the governor of Santa Fe, and they shared the prophecy and the tablets with him.  His Holiness, The Dalai Lama happened to be visiting the Tibet Center of Santa Fe, and the Governor introduced the elders to His Holiness the Dalai Lama in a private meeting, where the tablets where shared with his holiness. It was the first time in recent history that all these elders had come together. I was present at this historic event.  Grandfather Martin acknowledged the Tibetan High Lama as the prophetic older brother from the east, as indicated in the ancient stone tablets."  -- Amarushka
For more details, please see the Sovereign United Nations.

At this historic meeting, Amarushka and other members of the Ministry of the Children introduced the Declaration for a Sovereign United Nations to the Dalai Lama and each Hopi Elder.

American Indian Movement

Russel Means:  Free Man

The L.A. Times referred to Russell Means as "the most important American Indian since Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull". If you are not familiar with the American Indian Movement (AIM), or with the many things he helped change for Native peoples in America, please read his Autobiography Where White Men Fear to Tread

Russell Means, by Bob Coronato

“An upside down flag is an international signal of distress.  Now we, the Indian nations, are in distress.  I will wear this flag upside down as long as my people are in distress!”  -- Russell Means

Russel has inspired and lead people to stand up be proud to be Indian, and fought for the rights of All Indian peoples. After years of fighting an uphill battle against many of the injustices and failures of the U.S. government, AIM has made strong headway in improving how Indian people are treated today. His Life is one of sacrifice, giving up freedom, personal relationships and family to selflessly fight for the rights of Indian people.

The failures of the US government have not been fully addressed or repaired, but AIM, Russell Means and many others have demanded freedom and sovereignty for Indian nations around the country, including that the US government honor and live up to its own laws, treaties and agreements with its people.

Lakota declares its Sovereignty, Russell Means, Pt 1

Colonialism and World Order: You're Next, Russell Means, Pt 2

Please see Russel Means' website: Republic of Lakota
"Let me be a free man:   free to travel, free to stop, free to work, free to trade where I choose, free to choose my own teachers, free to follow the religion of my fathers, free to talk, think and act for myself -- and I will obey every law or submit to the penalty."  -- Chief Joseph, Nez Pierce

Leonard Peltier:  An Innocent Man

extrdition from canada
Leonard Peltier, Seized in Canada and Illegally Smuggled into the U.S.

An innocent man, Leonard Peltier was wrongfully convicted in 1977 of a murder he did not commit, and has served over 30 years in federal prison despite voluminous proof of his innocence, in addition to incontrovertible proof that he was convicted on the basis of fabricated and suppressed evidence and coerced testimony. 

The United States Courts of Appeal have repeatedly acknowledged investigative and prosecutorial misconduct in this case but, by their decisions, have refused to take corrective action. A model prisoner, Leonard Peltier also has been denied fair consideration for parole and Executive Clemency. This is clearly an abuse of the legal standards of American justice.

Leonard's fight from a very young age against the genocidal policies of an occupying power is one that was faced by tens of thousands of his generation.  .  .and one that continues still today.

“Leonard tells us that when he was nine years old a big black government car drove up to his house to take him and the other kids away to the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) boarding school in Wahpeton, Dakota del Norte. When they got there, they cut off their long hair, stripped them, and doused them with DDT powder.”  -- Carolina Saldaña
“I thought I was going to die, that place was more like a reformatory than a school.  I consider my years at Wahpenton my first imprisonment, and it was for the same crime as all the others: being an Indian. We had to speak English.  We were beaten if we were caught speaking our own language. Still, we did.  I guess that’s where I became a ‘hardened criminal,’ as the FBI calls me. And you could say that the first infraction in my criminal career was speaking my own language. There’s an act of violence for you!  The second was practicing our traditional religion.”   -- Leonard Peltier

In 1979, the FBI tried to assassinate Peltier in prison, pressuring other Indian prisoners to participate in their plot. One of those prisoners, Standing Deer, who suffered from extreme spinal pain, was denied medical treatment unless he helped to set-up Peltier. Standing Deer exposed the plot at great personal risk. He was transferred to a prison hospital for surgery, after an FBI agent threatened him, saying, “What you need is a good lobotomy.”

“As warriors of our nation we must show our people the spirit of Crazy Horse, so they may rise off their knees.  Raise up with me and resist the terrorist attacks of genocide against our nation!” -- Leonard Peltier from prison, 1978

Revenge was not the only reason the FBI wanted Peltier dead. Secret documents were being forced into the open that proved once and for all that the FBI manufactured the “evidence” against Peltier. Among other pieces of evidence was a secret, 1975 memo to the FBI director revealed that the firing pin of the AR-15 rifle connected to Peltier had not matched any shell casing supposedly found at the scene.


“If my case stands as it is, no common person has real freedom. Only the illusion until you have something the oppressors want.”  -- Leonard Peltier

By the late 1980s, even Prosecutor Lynn Crooks was forced to admit that the government did not know who shot the two FBI agents.

“We did not have any direct evidence that one individual as opposed to another pulled the trigger.  What we argued to the jury was quite simply that this man was a guilty participant in a murder.  The facts available did not give us direct evidence as to who did the coup-de-grace:  there was no direct evidence upon which we could make a factual argument. We argued inferences, that’s not the same thing as saying that we had direct evidence that Mr. Peltier was the one that squeezed off the final rounds.”   -- Prosecutor Lynn Crooks

In other words, the government never had any evidence that Peltier shot anyone.

Recognizing that Leonard Peltier has been imprisoned for decades for a crime he did not commit, various governments, dignitaries and organizations from around the world have called for Leonard Peltier's release.

On June 23, 1995, Amnesty International submitted a letter of concern about the Peltier case to the U.S. Attorney General.  With no executive review of the case forthcoming, in 1999, Amnesty International called for Leonard Peltier's release. Before the U.S. Congress, in 2000, Amnesty International issued this statement:

"Amnesty International considers Leonard Peltier to be a political prisoner. Amnesty International believes that Leonard Peltier should be immediately and unconditionally released."  -- Amnesty International

In briefings to the United Nations since 1992, Amnesty International has actively pursued Leonard Peltier's freedom. Amnesty International submitted a briefing to the U.N. Human Rights Committee in February 2006 (updated in early July 2006), in which they again called for Leonard Peltier's release.

“Given that the case against Peltier unraveled years ago, his continued imprisonment is only protracting a grave miscarriage of justice. When you consider the concerns that plague the case, it is unconscionable that Leonard Peltier should continue to suffer behind bars. It is high time for the U.S. government to right the wrongs of the past.”  -- Senior Deputy Director, Amnesty International-USA,  2009

The federal court is now saying that Peltier must spend life in prison for being present as the AIM encampment defended itself. The system believes that someone has to pay for the armed resistance at Oglala.

“The government has admitted in two courts of law at the Appellate Court level that they don’t know who killed the agents.  And now the government on their most recent decision is claiming that I am an 'aider and abettor.’ Basically, that was their theory:  I was aider and abettor at 15 to 20 feet or 200 yards, about two football fields away. They don’t know where I aided and abetted, but I was on the reservation.”  -- Leonard Peltier

The "fair and just" American system of "rule by law" has tried to make Peltier a symbol of government revenge and power. They have failed. Instead, Leonard Peltier has continued the struggle with his words, his paintings and his organizing efforts. The support of literally millions of people all over the world has made Leonard Peltier a symbol of today’s Native resistance and U.S. government injustice.

"Sometimes I am at lost for words for the heartfelt appreciation that you still remember me and keep me in your thoughts and prayers".    -- Leonard Peltier, June 2007


"A worldwide outpouring of support for Peltier's release has included Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Nobel Peace Prize winners Nelson Mandela and Rigoberta Menchu, the U.N. High Commissioner on Human Rights, the 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, the European Parliament, the Belgian Parliament, the Italian Parliament, the Kennedy Memorial Center for Human Rights, Rev. Jesse Jackson, plus several American Indian nations and organizations, including the National Congress of American Indians and the Assembly of First Nations." -- Native American Times.

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation

Mayan Revolt and the EZLN

The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. Since 1994, they have been in a declared war "against the Mexican state". Their social base is mostly indigenous but they have some supporters in urban areas as well as an international web of support. Their main spokesperson is Subcomandante Marcos (currently a.k.a. Delegate Zero in relation to the "Other Campaign"). Unlike other Zapatista comandantes, Subcomandante Marcos is not an indigenous Mayan.

"Enough" by Amore Art, 2009 (Click above for bigger version)

As an internationally known guerrillero, Subcomandante Marcos' popularity has led some to comment that he has achieved 'pop star' status in Mexico. Some on the political right see him as a menace, and some on the left see him as a champion of the indigenous population. 

"You are in Zapatista rebel territory.
Here the people give the orders and the government obeys."  -- EZLN

Regardless of the debate on whether he is harmful or helpful to Mexico, most would agree that Subcomandante Marcos is the man most responsible for bringing the impoverished conditions of Mexico's indigenous people into the local and international spotlight.

Subcomandante Insurgente Marcos

Subcomandante Marcos is the de facto spokesman for the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN), a Mexican rebel movement.  In January 1994, Marcos led an army of Mayan Indian farmers out of the mountains and took over the eastern part of the state of Chiapas, protesting the government's neglect of indigenous peoples.

"The indigenous peoples who support our just cause have decided to resist without surrender, without accepting the alms with which the supreme government hopes to buy them.  And they have decided this because they have made theirs a word which is not understood with the head, which cannot be studied or memorized.  It is a word which is lived with the heart, a word which is felt deep inside your chest and which makes men and women proud of belonging to the human race.  This word is DIGNITY.  Respect for ourselves, for our right to be better, or right to struggle for what we believe in, our right to live and die according to our ideals.  Dignity cannot be studied, you live it or it dies, it aches inside you and teaches you how to walk. Dignity is that international homeland which we forget many times."  -- Subcomandante Marcos   


EZLN takes its name from Emiliano Zapata, the agrarian reformer and commander of the Liberation Army of the South during the Mexican Revolution, and thus see themselves as his ideological heirs. In reference to inspirational figures, in nearly all EZLN villages exist murals accompanying images of Emiliano Zapata, Che Guevara, and Subcomandante Marcos.

“All cultures forged by nations -- the noble indigenous past of America, the brilliant civilization of Europe, the wise history of Asian nations, and the ancestral wealth of Africa and Oceania -- are corroded by the American way of life. In this way, neoliberalism imposes the destruction of nations and groups of nations in order to reconstruct them according to a single model. This is a planetary war, of the worst and cruelest kind, waged against humanity.” -- Subcomandante Marcos

Montezuma's Holy Crown

The sacred feathercrown of Montezuma, the 9th emperor of the Aztecs, is called the “Kopilli Ketzalli”, or "precious crown".  It has been in possession of the Austrians since 1524. It is currently located in the Museum of Ethnology (Volkerkundmuseum) in Vienna.  For Aztecs and indeed all Mexico, this crown is a symbol for the return of the spirit of Lord Montezuma, representing nature, peace, harmony, duality, wisdom and spiritual power.

montezuma feathered crown
Montezuma's Crown,  Replica, Mexico City

Montezuma's Crown consisted of 400 feathers of the rainforest bird Ketzalli, also known as the Quetzal, or Quetzalcoatl bird. To the Aztecs, the Quetzal is a sacred bird, representing wisdom, fertility, freedom and peace. Its feathers are given only for supreme achievement. The number 400 is the symbol for eternity and immensity. According to Aztec tradition, only the highest person is entitled to wear the 400 feathers of this sacred Quetzal bird.

The gold leaf on the crown is a symbol of the SUN.  The feathers were originally numbered, to allow for certain astrophysical calculations.  The base of the crown was a golden helmet of pure gold. It was the head of an Adler, an equivalent symbol for the SUN.  After the slaying of Montezuma during the Spanish invasion of Mexico by Hernando Cortez, the Crown was confiscated by the Spaniards. The gold helmet was melted down into bars and the feathered head piece was sent as a present to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain (known there as Charles I). Charles V was also the Archduke of Austria where the Hapsburg dynasty had their residence. It presently resides in an exhibit in the Vienna Hofburg - Museum for Ethnology.

Montezuma, as a national leader and God of the Mexican People, was the symbol of the SUN itself on earth - just as with the Egyptian Pharaohs, and his Crown embodies this symbol for thousands of indigenous Mexicans.

Emperor Montezuma II

Aztec Emperor Montezuma's Holy Crown is now displayed in Vienna at the Hapsburg Museum.  Its return to Mexico is of the highest spiritual and moral significance for the Indigenous peoples of Mexico.  It is the sole surviving crown of feathers of the old time which still exists!

"The crest of Montezuma, the last ruler of the Aztecs, is located in Austria since 1524, currently as an exhibit at the Ethnographic Museum in Vienna. The Aborigines of Anahuak (Mexico) consider the crown sacred."    -- Motekuhzoma Xokoyotzin

For many years, the Mexican government has been asking the Austrian government to return the feathercrown. Currently, a replica of the head piece can be found in the Anthropological National Museum of Mexico City. This along with other representative items of Mexico’s original culture has been offered to the Austrians in exchange for the sacred headdress.

"Austrians have argued that the Montezuma’s Crown was legally acquired in the 16th century in Europe by the Habsburg archduke Ferdinand II of Austria. What they do not further consider is how the object came to Europe. The Mexicans are of the view that the crown was among the many objects the Spaniards stole from Mexico. Professor Feest, former Director of the Ethnology Museum, Vienna, has argued that the feather crown may not be able to travel to Mexico, and that the crown was never really part of the power symbols of the Mexico rulers but instead part of the symbols used in ritual ceremonies by priests. The Austrians seem to have learnt from the experience of the British and Germans whereby untrue, unsubstantiated or weak arguments are repeated so often that others, at least their own people, start considering them as solid arguments.
However, recent reports seem to indicate that there has been a qualitative change in the thinking of the Austrian leadership on this matter, which had divided ruling circles in the past. Leading elements in the Social Democratic party had been in favour of return/loan but the Foreign Ministry warned that Mexico might, on loan, declare the crown a 'national cultural property and thus hinder its return' to Austria. Late President Thomas Klestil had been in favour of the return of the crown.   Dr.Wolfgang Zinggl, from the Green Party had also been in favour of return in the form of a gift to Mexico.
Now is the time for Austrians to act in their own sovereign right to change their position regarding an artefact which means a lot to the people of Mexico as evidence of their pre-Columbus civilization but is of little importance for Austrian culture. The vision of the dominating European males, the conquistadores, as masters of the world, has been long abandoned and the principles and practices of artefacts collection must also change accordingly. Ideas of the 19th century cannot continue to dominate museum practices of the 21st century."  --Dr. Kwame Opoku, 27 January, 2011

Since 1986, descendants of the Aztec Nation have been gathering signatures in the streets of Europe to petition the Austrian government. They want the sacred feathercrown returned to the country of its origin for display in the Anthropological National Museum of Mexico City (Museo Nacional de Antropologia) which is built over the remains of Montezuma’s residence.  These Indians hold that, when the feathercrown returns to this sacred place, the Indian Sun will dawn over the entire planet and teach harmony, peace and respect to all people.

Xokonoschtletl Gomora in Aztec Traditional Ceremonial Dress

Aztec Xokonoschtletl Gomorra is a descendent of Aztec Emperor Montezuma the ll, the last wearer of the Crown.  He has fraught tirelessly at great personal cost to his family and himself, to facilitate the return of his ancestors' sacred Crown to Mexico.

crown prince of Liecthenstien
Crown Prince of Vaduz , Liechtenstein with  Xokonoschtletl Gomorra

"The return of this sacred crown is like a small flame that can cause a big fire and will help the indigenous cultural roots of Mexico and restore their identity once again, the strength and the spirit will be once again. There will be justice for what has been done to the indigenous peoples of Mexico over the last 500 years!"  -- Xokonoschtletl Gomorra

Xokonoschtletl Gomora, Meeting with Pope Johannes Paul II Regarding the Crown

Inca Q'ero

'Pachacuti' and the Sacred Prophecy of Great Change

For 500 years the Incan Q'ero Elders have preserved a sacred prophecy of a great change, or 'pachacuti', in which the world would be turned right-side-up, harmony and order would be restored, and chaos and disorder ended. The Q'ero lived in their villages high in the Andes in virtual solitude from the world until their 'discovery' in 1949.

Inca Q'ero
Inca Q'ero

Pachacuti also refers to a great Incan leader who lived in the late 1300s, the legendary ninth Inca and the architect of an Incan empire the size of the United States.  He is said to have built the legendary city of Machu Picchu. For the Incas, Pachacuti is a spiritual prototype -- a Master, a luminous one who stepped outside of time. He was a messiah, but not in the Christian sense of the only son of God, beyond the reach of humanity. Rather he is viewed as a symbol and promise of who we all might become. He embodies the essence of the prophecies of the pachacuti, as Pacha means 'earth' or 'time', and cuti means 'to set things right'.  His name also means "transformer of the earth".


"Look with the eyes of your soul and engage the essential." -- Q'ero teaching

The prophecies of the pachacuti are known throughout the Andes. There are those who believe the prophecies refer to the return of the leader Pachacuti to defeat those who took the Incas' land. But according to Dr. Villoldo, the return of Pachacuti is taking place on the collective level.

"It's not the return of a single individual who embodies what we're becoming, but a process of emergence available to all peoples." -- Dr. Alberto Villoldo

According to ancient Q'ero prophecy, this is the time of the great gathering called the "mastay" and reintegration of the peoples of the four directions.  The Q'ero are releasing their teachings to the West, in preparation for the day the Eagle of the North and the Condor of the South fly together again and unite the Americas.

They believe that "munay," love and compassion, will be the guiding force of this grand gather of people.

"The new caretakers of the Earth will come from the West, and those that have made the greatest impact on Mother Earth now have the moral responsibility to remake their relationship with Her, after remaking themselves." -- Don Antonio Morales, Master Q'ero shaman.

The prophecy holds that North America will supply the physical strength, or body, Europe will supply the mental aspect, or head and the heart will be supplied by South America.

macchu peru
Machu Picchu, built between 1460 and 1470, by Inca Yupanqui.

The prophecies are optimistic. They refer to the end of time as we know it -- the death of a way of thinking and a way of being, the end of a way of relating to nature and to the earth. In the coming years, the Incas expect us to emerge into a golden age, a golden millennium of peace. The prophecies also speak of tumultuous changes happening in the earth, and in our psyche, redefining our relationships and spirituality.

When the Spanish conquered the Incas 500 years ago, the last 'Pachacuti', or great change, occurred. The Q'ero have been waiting ever since for the next pachacuti, when order would emerge out of chaos.

The next pachacuti, or great change, has already begun, and it promises the emergence of a new human after this period of turmoil. The chaos and upheaval characteristic of this period will last another four years, according to the Q'ero.

Kogi: Elder Brother's Warning

The Kogi are an indigenous people living in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountains of northern Colombia, in South America.

They are the only civilization to have survived the Spanish conquests and to have kept their individuality. They are perhaps the only indigenous people in the world who, because of the particular nature of their surroundings, have been able to keep themselves apart and sustain their culture inviolate.

Kogi Mamas

"Everything we do is an event not only in the physical world but also in the spirit world. We live in a world shaped in spirit. Every tree, every stone, every river, has a spirit form, invisible to the Younger Brother. This is the world of "Aluna", the world of thought and spirit. Aluna embraces intelligence, soul and fertility: it is the stuff of life, the essence of reality. The material world is underpinned, shaped, given life and generative power in Aluna, and the Mama's work is carried out in Aluna"  -- Mama Valencia

In 1990 the Kogi decided they must speak out to the rest of the world. They had survived by keeping themselves isolated but they decided that it was time to send a message to the Younger Brother. They could see that something was wrong with their mountain, with the heart of the world. The snows had stopped falling and the rivers were not so full. If their mountain was ill then the whole world was in trouble.  The Kogi message, delivered by the Mamas in the Chibcha language in the nuhue (ceremonial house), was translated into Spanish, and finally into English:

"From the beginning in Colombia everything, everything remained as it was among us, the  native people; the same belief, the same mask, the same dance.  Everything well organized, in  order, a terrace for every animal.  ‘Younger brother was permitted in other places, other  countries. 
There was a dividing line, the sea.  He said, ‘Younger Brother that side, Elder Brother this side.  You cannot cross it.’
Because this Colombia was the heart of The world, of the whole universe.
But Younger Brother came from another country and immediately saw gold and immediately  began to rob. 
There were golden images, golden oracles.  The Mama prophesied with golden Bowls, he had a golden tuma, he had everything and Younger Brother took it all to another country.
Now the Mama grows sad, he feels weak.  He says that the earth is decaying.  The earth is losing its strength Because they have taken away much petrol, coal, many minerals.
A human being has much liquid inside.  If the liquid dries up we fall with weakness.  This same thing can happen to the Earth, Weakness makes you fall, weakness.
So the earth catches diseases of all kinds.  The animals die.  The trees dry up.  People fall ill.   Many illnesses will appear and there will be no cure for them.
Because the Younger Brother is among us, Younger Brother is violating The basic foundation of the world’s law A total violation.  Robbing.  Ransacking.  Building highways, Extracting petrol, minerals.
We tell you, We the people of this place, Kogi, Asario, Arhuaco: that is the violation
So the Mamas say, ‘please BBC no one else should come here, no more ransacking because  the earth wants to collapse, the earth grows weak, we must protect it, we must respect it, because he does not respect the earth, because he does not respect it.’
Younger Brother thinks, ‘Yes! Here I am! I know much about the universe!’  But this knowing is learning to destroy the world, to destroy everything, all humanity.
The earth feels, they take out petrol, it feels pain there.  So the earth sends out sickness.  There will be many medicines, drugs, but in the end the drugs will not be of any use.
The Mamas say that this tale must be learnt by the Younger Brother.
After centuries and centuries of years the Younger Brother passed from the other country, says the Mama.  Senor Christopher Columbus came to this land and immediately saw the riches and killed, shot, many natives (The symbolic name for all invaders).  He took the gold which had been here.  Sacred gold, gold of masks, all kinds of gold.  They took so much.  So much.  So much.
Younger Brother thinks 'Yes! Here I am! I know much about the universe!' But this knowing is learning to destroy the world, to destroy everything, all humanity.
Because Younger Brother is among us, Younger Brother is violating the basic foundation of the world's law.  A total violation.  Robbing.  Ransacking.  Building highways, Extracting petroleum, minerals.
If all the Kogi die, do you, Younger Brother, think that you will also go on living?  Many stories have been heard that the sun will go out, the world will come to an end.  But if we all act well and think well it will not end.  That is why we are still looking after the sun and the moon and the land." -- Elder Brothers, Delivered to BBC Film Crew

All Our Relations
Mitakuye Oyasin
Gus dii dada dv ni

Aho.  .  .

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