Sovereign Hawaii

Ali'i Ruling Chiefs of Hawaii by Herb Kane

Ministry of the Children
Power of the Gift

Hawaii under the
Royal Kamehamehas

“The Life of the Land is Perpetuated in Righteousness”
-- Hawaiian State Motto, King Kamehameha III

"Kaho'olawe is synonymous to 'Aloha Aina'. . .we love the land. If all us Hawaiians can go over there and touch it, we all come together. A lot of problems! Every time you read the newspaper, all these Hawaiians, they say 'oh, one more group popping up over here, one more over there, what's the matter with these Hawaiians, can't they get together, what's the matter with these Hawaiians.' I say it's beautiful! We should have more organizations pop out, because you know why? That shows the problems are very, very critical, and we want people to look at it! Kama'aina means 'child of the land', and everyone of you that have that Hawaiian blood in you is a child of this Land. You are attached to it whether you like it or not!" -- George Helm

Sovereignty Organizations

There are many organizations in Hawaii today dedicated to restoring the Aina to the Kanaka Maoli. The twelve Hawaiian Elders shown below are just a few of the many dedicated to re-establishing Hawaii as a sovereign kingdom.

James Akahi Nui Eric Kanakaole David Keanu Sai Dennis Puuhonua Kanahele Henry Noa Edmund Keli’i Silva
Mililani Trask Mahealani Kahau Dayne Aipoalani Norman Keanaaina Leon Siu Charles Kauluwehi Maxwell

E na`i wale no`oukou, I ku`u pono`a`ole pau
"Prevail / continue my just deeds, they are not yet finished"
-- King Kamehameha I

"They were gathered there in the name of the Aina, the many Royal Chiefs uniting in sacred ceremony on Kaho'olawe, sitting in circle around a large central fire roaring high with flames. Each chief stepped up to the west gate of the ceremonial circle, then lifted up into the sky. One after another they ascended this worldly domain and were anointed by the nā ʻaumākua watching over them. They each entered the lua huna, joined with their spiritual bodies and then returned to this earthly existence as large upright bird headed beings, feathers draping to the ground around them.
They selected a Council of Chiefs from all the islands to guide and govern the reestablished, never dissolved and Royal Kingdom of Hawaii. Returning the land to Pono. They elected a Prime Minister and his Ruling Deputy. Then all together they elected their new King, a just man to care for his people, to love his people." -- Amarushka

Ua ola loko i ke aloha
"Love gives Life within"

Finding Sovereignty and Independenc

International Law
Professor Francis Boyle, Lawyer

Professor Francis Boyle
Professor Francis Boyle

"The full restoration of the original Sovereign Kingdom of Hawaii [must happen]
before a modern Sovereign Nation can emerge triumphantly!" -- Professor Francis Boyle

In 1993, controversial international law expert Francis Boyle came to Hawai’i. He told native Hawaiians that that their fight was not only just, but conceivably possible. With the Apology Bill, he explained, the United States of America is:

". . .admitting that the invasion, overthrow, occupation and annexation starting in 1893 violated all treaties and basic norms of international law, including the United States Constitution. Under international law, when you have a violation of treaties of this magnitude [through] the overthrow of a lawful government, the World Court has ruled that the only appropriate remedy is restitution. That fact alone gives the Kanaka Maoli the entitlement to restore their independent status as a sovereign nation state. You don’t need to petition Congress to do it. Congress has given you everything you need right here. The United Nations Charter provides the rest of the authority to do it.” -- Professor Francis Boyle

With the United States government effectively conceding that Hawaii's vote for statehood in 1959 was meaningless, the people of Hawaii and the United States are not bound by it. He made it clear from a legal standpoint, that:

"Hawaiians are free to determine their own fate 'pursuant to the principal of self-determination.'" -- Professor Francis Boyle

Hawaii vs. U.S. Imperialism, The Pinky Show

“Sovereignty resides in the people.” -- Professor Francis Boyle

Professor Boyle has referenced the Palestinians, who in 1988 decided on their own to unilaterally proclaim their own state, in a declaration of independence. This eventually led to the Palestinian state being recognized today by 125 nation states in the world.”

He also gives Algeria as an example of international law protecting the right of national self-determination:

“Just because the United States says Hawaii is now part of the United States doesn't mean it's so as a matter of international law.  France annexed Algeria and then determined by law that Algeria was a department of France, legally equivalent to Paris. Yet today, Algeria is an independent nation state and a member of the United Nations organization. These same principles of international law surely apply to Hawai’i.” -- Professor Francis Boyle

Believed to be one of the original flags of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the below Kanaka Maoli ("True People") Flag features the colors red, green and yellow, which are believed to have been the colors of King Kamehameha III:

Kanakamaoli Flag
The "Kanaka Maoli Flag"

But there are steps to take to creating an independent state. Hawai’i already has a fixed territory – the Hawai’ian Archipelago – and a population of distinguishable people – the Native Hawai’ians. “Government,” Boyle said, “is in the kupuna council, but how the people are governed has yet to be organized.” As well you need the capacity to “enter into international relations, to deal with other states, and to keep your commitments,” which means establishing diplomatic relations as an independent state.

"There has already been recent recognition when the Hawai’ian Kingdom entered into international arbitration with a Hawai’ian national claiming the U.S. violated his civil rights by incarcerating him. The case was actually to determine if Larsen had redress against the government of the Hawai’ian Kingdom for not protecting him. The significance of this case being that International court verified Hawai’i to be an independent and sovereign State and the case a 'legitimate international dispute'." -- Lance Larcen vs. the Hawai'ian Kingdom, 1999-2001

But it is unknown how long it might take for Hawai’i to reestablish itself as an independent state, what the consequences would be or how many states would recognize them.

“The plight of the Hawai’ian people is generally well known in the world and there’s a great deal of sympathy. … Ghandi threw the mighty British out of India with peaceful, nonviolent force.”  -- Professor Francis Boyle

He made it clear that the fight, at this point, has everything to do with invoking the power of the people.

“The people to whom your fathers told of the living God, and taught to call ‘Father,’ and whom the sons now seek to despoil and destroy, are crying aloud to Him in their time of trouble; and He will keep His promise, and will listen to the voices of His Hawai’ian children lamenting for their homes.” -- Queen Lili’uokalani

Hawaiian Protest

The supreme, absolute, and uncontrollable power by which any independent state is govern; supreme political authority; paramount control of the constitution and frame of government and its administration; self sufficient source of political power, from which all specific political powers are derived; the international independence of a state, combined with the right and power of regulating its internal affairs without foreign dictation; also a political society, or state, which is sovereign and independent.

"Sovereignty means that the decree of the sovereign makes law; and foreign courts cannot condemn the influences persuading the sovereign to make the decree" -- American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co., 213 U. 5. 347 29 Sup. Ct. 511, 53 L Ed. 826, 16 Ann. Cas 1047
The idea of sovereignty was not associated in the Teutonic mind with dominion over a particular portion of the earth’s surface; it was distinctly personal or tribal; and so was their conception of law." -- Taylor, Science of Jurispr. 133.

Professor Boyle asks the Hawaiian people to:

Look deeper into the carefully chosen phrases within the Akaka Bill, [which] promises a governing entity, not a government. -- Professor Francis Boyle

The Hawai’ians may not have a single figurehead to guide them through their struggle, but they have faith and determination. Leaders and kapuna are stepping up to help achieve a sovereign state and put in place a government when that goal is achieved. And though there are some conflicts within these factions, including who are rightful heirs to the thrown, and who should be considered the reigning King or Queen when sovereignty is restored, ultimately regaining control of their lands and lives is the priority.

Hawai’i is a beautiful, amazing place that anyone would be lucky to live. But that doesn’t afford a complacency to ignore the deep personal, economical, cultural, spiritual, environmental concerns, for natives and non-native residents alike. No matter a struggle for independence, we are all interdependent, we are all connected. The idea that those who stand idly by are guilty by default does come into play.

There is a revolution here in Hawai’i - on many levels - that needs to occur; a message of Aloha that can indeed transcend; an evolution that can manifest into a symbol of hope. It must come from within before the people here can help change their families, their communities, their islands…the world.

"The recovery of Hawaiian self-determination is not only an issue for Hawaii, but for America. ... let all of us, Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian, work toward a common goal. Let us resolve ... to advance a plan for Hawaiian sovereignty." -- Democratic Governor Ben Cayetano

Hawaiian protestor
Riki Pestana-Torres
: "In Loving Memory of Old Hawaii Nei, destroyed by the American Dream"

“I’m not part of any group. But we should all work together. . .that’s how 'they' operate you know, divide and conquer.”-- Riki

The Apology Resolution
United States Public Law 103-150

Passed by Congress and signed by President William J. Clinton, November 23, 1993

Clinto Apology Bill
Hawaii Delegation with President Clinton during the bill signing ceremony of the Apology Resolution (1993).

"An apology is a good way to have the last word." - Author Unknown

Now, therefore, be it Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled;

"The United States of America Congress apologizes to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the people of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii on January 17, 1893, and the deprivation of the rights of Native Hawaiians to self-determination and expresses its commitment to acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, in order to provide a proper foundation for reconciliation between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people and urges the President of the United States to also acknowledge the ramifications of the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii and to support reconciliation efforts between the United States and the Native Hawaiian people."

Apparently, the fact that Hawai’i was taken control of illegally, therefore its annexation was illegal, and therefore is still a sovereign nation and not really a part of the United States is not even denied by the U.S. government. In 1993, Congress unanimously passed, and President Clinton signed into Public Law, the Apology Bill. It was initiated by the Eighteenth General Synod of the United Church of Christ, where there may have been unresolved guilt regarding the part that some missionaries played in the destruction of the Hawai’ian Kingdom:

"We are gathered in this place at the request of the 18th General Synod of the United Church of Christ, to recall with sorrow the unprovoked invasion of the Hawaiian nation on January 17, 1893, by forces of the United States.  We are gathered here so that, as President of the United Church of Christ, I can apologize for the support given that act by ancestors of ours in the church not known as the United Church of Christ.  We do so in order to begin a process of repentance, redress and reconciliation for wrongs done. 
We acknowledge and confess our sins against you and your forebears, Na Kanaka Maoli. We formally apologize to you for ‘our denomination’s historical complicity in the illegal overthrow of the Hawai’ian monarchy in 1893,’ and by unduly identifying the ways of the West with the ways of Christ, and, thereby, undervaluing the strengths of the mature society that was native Hawai’i. We commit ourselves to help right the wrongs inflicted upon you." -- Dr. Paul Sherry, President, of the United Church of Christ See Full Apology Here

The idea that it came in the form of a “Law” or a “Bill” seems distorted, in the sense that there were no plans or intentions for concrete action towards correcting the wrong. After listing the derisive acts of the United States and its ministers and stating why they felt it necessary to create this bill, Congress ends the matter with yet another unresolved conclusion:

“Nothing in this Joint Resolution is intended to serve as a settlement of any claims against the United States.” -- the disclaimer

Still there are some serious acknowledgments over the injurious effect of the theft of this land upon its citizens.

Here’s some of what the Apology Bill states:

"To acknowledge the 100th anniversary of the January 17, 1893 overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and to offer an apology to Native Hawaiians on behalf of the United States for the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Whereas, on January 24, 1895, while imprisoned in Iolani Palace, Queen Liliuokalani was forced by representatives of the Republic of Hawaii to officially abdicate her throne;

Whereas, the Republic of Hawaii also ceded 1,800,000 acres of crown, government and public lands of the Kingdom of Hawaii, without the consent of or compensation to the Native Hawaiian people of Hawaii or their sovereign government;

Whereas, the Congress, through the Newlands Resolution, ratified the cession, annexed Hawaii as part of the United States, and vested title to the lands in Hawaii in the United States;

Whereas, the indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the United States, either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or referendum;

Whereas, the health and well-being of the Native Hawaiian people is intrinsically tied to their deep feelings and attachment to the land;

Whereas, the long-range economic and social changes in Hawaii over the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries have been devastating to the population and to the health and well-being of the Hawaiian people." -- United States Public Law 103-150 See Complete Resolution Here

Despite the refusal to accept accountability, many hope its potent admittance of guilt could eventually support efforts towards a more just retribution. There have been legal measures to stop the sale of ceded lands because of Hawai’ian Sovereign claims to those lands. At Hawaii Nation's web site they don’t pussyfoot around the issue, boldly and assuredly declaring,

“America has done everything it can to avoid the consequences of this Bill. The inevitable result will be the restoration of a sovereign Hawai’i.” -- Hawaii Independent and Sovereign Nation

They assert that most Hawai’ians want complete sovereignty, not the Akaka Bill or other “Nation within a Nation” kinds of placation similar to what was given to Native Americans. There is indeed fear that any Bill of that nature would show an acquiescence to the illegal U.S.-backed overthrow and thus, the people would forever give up any possibility of self-determining power to the U.S.

Native Hawaiian Recognition Bill
State Senate Bill 1520 (Act 195)

"I'd like to know how the illegal entity that is the 'State of Hawaii' can register 'native Hawaiians' in their future government. The article below goes on to say this process will lead to a 'political body overseeing their affairs'. What kind of 'sovereignty' is this? The article assumes that the Hawaiians have been left out of the great deal North American native people got when they were 'recognized'. I'm hoping to hear a response from the Hawaiian sovereignty movement on this."-- Professor Francis Boyle

Governor Abercrombie signing Act 195  on July 6, 2011

Hawaii begins to create a state-recognized tribe
The "Native Hawaiian Roll"

On May 3, 2011, the Hawaii legislature passed SB1520. None of the 51 Representatives voted against it. It was signed by Governor Abercrombie on July 6, 2011 to become Act 195. Sam Slom was the only one among 25 Senators who had the guts to vote "No."

Act 195 States as its goal:

"To express the policy of the United States regarding the United States relationship with Native Hawaiians and to provide a process for the recognition by the United States of the Native Hawaiian governing entity." -- State Senate Bill 1520

It further defines native Hawaiians:

"The Native Hawaiian people are hereby recognized as the only indigenous, aboriginal, maoli people of Hawaii. 'Native Hawaiian' is defined as 'An individual who is a descendant of the aboriginal peoples who, prior to 1778, occupied and exercised sovereignty in the Hawaiian islands, the area that now constitutes the State of Hawaii.'" -- State Senate Bill 1520

In reality, State Senate Bill 1520 does only two things:

  1. It arbitrarily declares that ethnic Hawaiians are Hawaii's only indigenous people;

  2. It empowers the Governor to appoint a 5-member commission to create a membership roll of Native Hawaiians that will participate in the organization of a Native Hawaiian governing entity.

To be elegible for the membership roll, someone must prove he/she is ethnic Hawaiian, at least 18 years old, and has "maintained a significant cultural, social, or civic connection to the Native Hawaiian community and wishes to participate in the organization of the Native Hawaiian governing entity." But harmless as that may sound, SB1520 sets in motion a process whose expressed purpose is to break apart Hawaii along racial lines. 

Governor Abercrombie named the five members of the Roll Commission on September 8. On July 20, 2012 a ceremony was held at Liliuokalani house to kick off a year-long process to recruit ethnic Hawaiians to sign up for the racial registry under the Roll Commission.

"The Native Hawaiian Roll is the regurgitated 'State of Hawaii' version of the infamous 'Akaka Bill' that failed to pass Congress for 12 years. The real purpose behind the Native Hawaiian Roll is to create a list of 'Native Hawaiians' who agree to the continuation of the U.S. occupation of the Hawaiian Islands." -- Committee of Hawaiian Nationals

The Committee of “Hawaiian Nationals and supporters of a Free Hawai‘i” is a group of people who have opposed the Akaka Bill and advocate the return of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Their spokesperson Leon Siu said in a press release:

“SB 1520 represents a desperate ‘back door’ tactic to accomplish what the Akaka Bill failed to do.”
-- Leon Siu

In addition to the above reason, the Committee of Hawaiian Nationals opposes the Native Hawaiian Roll for the following basic reasons:

  1. The “State of Hawaii” is a puppet government of the U.S. Federal Government and has no lawful authority — either under its domestic law (the U.S. Constitution) or under International Laws — to form a body politic for a so-called "sovereign Native Hawaiian government";

  2. The proposed "sovereign Native Hawaiian government" will not provide the proper remedy for the 119+ years of the United States’ aggression, usurpation and occupation of the sovereign, independent nation-state known as the Hawaiian Kingdom;

  3. The use of the specific term, "Native Hawaiian" intrinsically excludes non“Native Hawaiians” from the roll, signifying racial discrimination; and

  4. The designation, "Native Hawaiian" excludes Hawaiian nationals, the actual and lawful descendants, heirs and beneficiaries of Hawaii Nei.

Hell No, we Won't Enroll

For Native Hawaiians already enrolled who wish to remove
their names from the Native Hawaiian Roll:
Please go here for information!

"The only honest and just remedy is for the United States to honor the binding obligations it assumed under its numerous treaties and covenants [including] its 1893 executive agreement, its 1993 apology and the basic principles and tenets of international laws." -- Committee of Hawaiian Nationals

Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act
H.R. 1250: The Akaka Bill

"A bill to express the policy of the United States regarding the United States relationship with Native Hawaiians and to provide a process for the recognition by the United States of the Native Hawaiian governing entity." --Official Title, H.R. 1250
Information aboutH.R.1250 can be found here

‘Olohana was one of the Ali’i who unified the Hawaiian Islands with Kamehameha the Great. As a close advisor to the King, he was appointed as the governor of the Big Island, and today his body lies in Mauna ʻAla, the Royal Mausoleum. His son was the Kuhina Nui to King Kamehameha the third, and his grand daughter was the beloved Queen Emma.

But the Akaka Bill will not recognize Keoni as Hawaiian. Keoni, regardless of his rank, stature or accomplishments would not be allowed a place in the Akaka Bill’s new government. Keoni used to be called John Young, and his ancestors came from England. Although he and his family were instrumental in the creation of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the Akaka Bill would reject him simply on the basis of his bloodline.

Professor Francis A. Boyle spoke out regarding Akaka Legislation:

  • The Akaka Bill states that the Hawaiian people are indigenous people of the United States. However, the internationally recognized "blue water test" indicates that Hawaii is a colony. Article 73 list at UN indicates Hawaii could be elegible for de-colonization and independence.

  • Akaka Bill recognizes that US had full relations with the Nation of Hawaii. The Apology Bill and Akaka Bill both admit the Hawaiian nation never voluntarily gave up its rights when it was stolen in 1893. Kanaka Maoli need to build their nation from the ground up, and state and federal governments owe it to the Hawaiian people to support this process.

  • The Akaka bill is based on the same reservation system as other American Indians have been forced to follow. But the rights of Native Hawaiians are guaranteed by international law.

  • Under the Akaka Bill the Secretary of the Interior would administer the ultimate entity. But Hawaii is not part of the US interior department. It's not part of the US interior at all. Under international law it should be the State Department.

  • The Akaka Bill talks of autonomy in internal affairs. That is not self-determination.

  • The Bill gives rights to a Council to have its own documents (not law or regulations). "Documents" will have no meaning in the long run. The Powers of such a Council should be determined by kanaka maoli. But in reality the power will be determined by US Federal Government in Akaka Bill. Such a council will recognize individuals and not land. Such a Council will not be a government and will have no laws of its own. By voting for a Council, Hawaiians will have given away their "sovereign" interest. For example, the US will determine age of voters. Again this is the US determining who is a kanaka maoli.

  • Finally the Akaka bill treats Hawaiians and their land as assets, not a nation of people.
  • Professor Boyle pointed out that the Akaka Bill calling its proposed government an "entity" is a blatant disrespect, and relates it to terminology utilized in the Middle East:

    When Arab governments or states or people wish to express disrespect for Israel, instead of calling it the State of Israel or the Government of Israel, they call it the Zionist entity. I’m not exactly sure then how the United States Congress is going to promote peace and reconciliation with Kanaka Maoli by giving you a Kanaka entity.” -- Professor Francis Boyle
"Hawaiians are under the boot of the empire and you are living on your own land, doing the best you can."-- Professor Francis Boyle

shame on the Akahi Bill

Section 8 makes it clear that the Council will have no resources or land or power to tax. It says there might be future land assigned to it. The power to tax is basic to government. All rights and assets will be given up by those Native Hawaiians that accept the Akaka Bill.

What to do now?

By international law the US is a belligerent occupier of Hawaii. Conquest does not transfer sovereignty. Any authentic alternative to the Akaka Bill must include complete restoration of a Sovereign Hawaii Nation.

Hawaiian Protestors carrying chains
Hawaiian Taro Protester carrying chains

“It is no small matter when an indigenous people share the importance of their traditional knowledge and genealogy, and the dominant culture refuses to listen.  This is the time when we are making it perfectly clear that there is a kapu [ban] placed on all genetic modifications and patenting of our genealogical brother the taro. There should be limits to academic research when it conflicts with indigenous culture. No one can own our traditional knowledge, intellectual property rights or our biodiversity.” -- Walter Ritte, Native Hawaiian of Moloka'i


According to International Law:

"To qualify as a subject under the traditional definition of international law, a state had to be sovereign: It needed a territory, a population, a government, and the ability to engage in diplomatic or foreign relations. States within the United States, provinces, and cantons were not considered subjects of international law, because they lacked the legal authority to engage in foreign relations. In addition, individuals did not fall within the definition of subjects that enjoyed rights and obligations under international law."-- Online Legal Dictionary

Hawaii has territory and population. A number of provisional governments are currently coordinating efforts to advance Hawaiian sovereignty. These provisional governments have ongoing diplomatic and foreign relations with a number of countries. International law does not require succession, nor an elected head of state. These governing bodies have already begun the process of re-establishing the treaties and diplomatic relations extant in 1893 (16 nations) 1849 Treaty of Friendship, Commerce, and Navigation, ALL of which still guarantees protection from the United State's aggression. Hawaii has only to pick up where kingdom left off.

Kaho'olawe Aloha 'Aina - George Helm

George Helms
George Helm, 1950 - 1977

Protect Kaho'olawe 'Ohana

On March 6, 1982, five years after the disappearance of George Helm and Kimo Mitchell in the seas off the island of Kaho’olawe, the Protect Kaho’olawe ‘Ohana held a tribute to the two men at ‘Iolani Palace in Honolulu.

“We are in a revolution of consciousness. What we are looking for is the truth. There is man, and there is the environment. One does not supercede the other. Man is merely the caretaker of the land, that maintains his life and nourishes his soul. The land is sacred. The church of life is not in a building, it is in the open sky, the surrounding ocean, and the beautiful soil.” -- George Helm

Representatives from the Helm and Mitchell families along with community members, singers and musicians from Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i and Hawai’i island joined their O’ahu compatriots in remembering the legacy of George and Kimo and the actions of many others who worked peaceably to stop the U.S. military bombing of Kaho’olawe.


"Look within yourself, and it is possible to stand firm."

Produced in 1977 by the Protect Kaho'olawe 'Ohana, the video below features scenes from the last years of the life of George Jarrett Helm, Jr. as he worked tirelessly to stop the bombing of Kaho'olawe and inspire others to take up the cause of Aloha 'Āina (love and protection of the land). Video of his classroom presentations, musical performances, speeches and interactions with government are supplemented with news stories and location shots of early occupations of Kaho'olawe.

"We are all connected to everyone and everything in the universe. Therefore, everything one does as an individual affects the whole. All thoughts, words, images, prayers, blessings and deeds are listened to by all that is." -- Serge Kahili King



By the Kaho'olawe Video Archive Project.

See great videos on Hawaiian History and Sovereignty at: Na Maka o ka Aina

Dedication to Kahuna Nui Hale Kealohalani Makua

"Love all you see, including yourself." -- Hale Makua

Hale Makua
Hale Makua

Seen by many as the Chief Kahuna of The Island of Hawaii, Hale Makua was, through his mother, a seventh generation descendant of King Kamehameha and his third wife Kahaku Ha’a Koi Wahine Pi’o. Through his father, he was a seventh generation descendent of High Chief Keoua Kuahu’ula, the son of High Chief Kalaniopu’u and cousin of King Kamehameha.

Makua, as he was generally known, was recognized as a kahuna elder and as a high chief all over the oceanic world. The Hawaiian word kahuna implies mastery, and Makua was the keeper of an extraordinary and possibly unequaled body of knowledge. He was also a warrior, a mystic, a sage and an accomplished shaman.

"Very few people knew who he was, because he kept a very low profile because of his genuine humility.  Makua was kahuna on both sides of his family, which means he comes from a long tradition of kahuna mystics; he was a kahuna kupua.  And you could say that he was a shaman, because he had such an ongoing and open relationship with his ancestors in spirit. As I got to know him I learned that he had approximately 27 generations of ancestors following him around as his spiritual advisors! It was like he had an open link to these ancestors all the time. So you could call Makua a shaman.
Makua never called himself a kahuna, but he certainly was. If you went to Easter Island or to New Zealand or Tahiti or Huahine or Raiatea, everyone knew him. And in his elder years, he really moved toward becoming a world figure. They would send him to speak to the Native American nations. He was on stage with the Dalai Lama at the United Nations in New York, and he was sent to many of the conferences with the world indigenous spiritual network in Africa and elsewhere. So this guy was really something! I guess you could say that in many ways, he was kind of like the Dalai Lama of Polynesia." -- Hank Wesselman

Makua passed away from this world in 2004.
We hope that he is smiling down upon us from Kua I He Lani!



"These accounts attempt to closely follow the authentic history of the Hawaiian people, as known to the Kanaka Maoli through oral and traditionally recorded history. The producers of this website are deeply committed to representing Hawaiian history and organizations fighting for Hawaiian freedom as impartially and accurately as possible. We will gratefully update any portion of this website to correctly portrait the past and current status of the Kanaka Maoli and their struggle to regain their independence. Any native Hawaiian organizations devoted to an independent Hawaii not included here, let us know! We can be contacted here." -- Ministry of the Children, for Sun Nation

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